Pomerantz LLP

Mergers Foreclose Derivative Litigation

Pomerantz Montitor, September/October 2013 

In a case involving the notorious Countrywide Corporation, with implications for derivative actions filed across the country, the Delaware Supreme Court, has declined to expand the circumstances under which a derivative action, brought on behalf of the injured corporation, can survive a merger of that corporation into another. Because mergers often happen while derivative suits are pending, and in fact are sometimes motivated by the directors’ desire to eliminate derivative claims against them, this decision will make it harder in many cases to hold directors of Delaware corporations accountable for their reckless mismanagement. 

As is well known, Countrywide played a major role in the financial crash of 2008, because it was probably the most prolific perpetrator of toxic mortgage securities. When the mortgage market imploded, Countrywide nearly collapsed and was sold under the gun to Bank of America (“B of A”) – the unlucky purchaser of last resort not only of Countrywide but also of equally ill-fated Merrill Lynch. If ever there were directors who deserved to be sued for destroying their company, the directors of Countrywide fit the bill. Yet, when they were sued by Countrywide shareholders, they claimed that the sale to B of A wiped out the plaintiffs’ claims. 

The directors were invoking the so-called “continuous ownership” rule, which says that in order to assert a derivative claim a plaintiff shareholder must have owned stock in the injured corporation continuously from the time of the alleged wrong until the resolution of the litigation. Should the corporation be sold in a cash-out merger before the litigation is resolved, the shareholder plaintiff would be divested of his holdings, and therefore his chain of continuous ownership would be broken. 

Here, plaintiffs sued the former directors of Countrywide in California federal court, claiming that they were responsible for allowing Countrywide to engage in a host of reckless and fraudulent mortgage practices. The District Court dismissed the derivative claims under the “continuing ownership” rule, holding that under Delaware law plaintiffs lost standing to pursue the derivative claims upon consummation of Countrywide’s Merger with B of A. Plaintiffs had argued that there was an exception to this rule in cases where it was the alleged wrongdoing that forced the company to enter into the merger in the first place. On appeal, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit asked the Delaware Supreme Court to consider, as a “certified question,” whether this exception actually existed and, if so, whether it applied here. The certified question was prompted, in part, by the fact that state and federal courts had reached divergent results in previous cases applying Delaware law in this situation. 

In a famous decision decades ago in Lewis v. Anderson, the Delaware Supreme Court recognized a “fraud exception” to the continuous ownership rule, allowing plaintiffs to litigate post-merger derivative claims “where the merger itself is the subject of a claim of fraud,” meaning that the merger served “no alternative valid business purpose” other than eliminating derivative claims. Although there is a very low threshold for finding a “valid business purpose” for a merger, it is a short step from this doctrine to the proposition that the exception should apply if the very fraud that was the subject of the derivative action also drove the corporation to enter into the merger. 

Arguing before the Delaware Supreme Court, plaintiffs, in a twist, urged the court to consider resolving the certified question by creating a new cause of action, which they referred to as a “quasi-derivative” claim. Defendants argued that there is “no need and no basis” to recognize an exception to the continuous ownership rule even where the conduct in question forced the company to merge with another company. 

The Delaware Supreme Court found in favor of defendants, holding that shareholders cannot pursue derivative claims against a corporation after a merger divests them of their ownership interest, even if a board's fraud effectively forced the corporation into the merger. However, the court was careful to note that shareholders who lose derivative standing in a merger may nonetheless have post-merger standing to recover damages from a direct fraud claim, should one be properly pleaded.